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Electric motorcycles and scooters

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File:Zero Z-Force.jpg
File:Zero Motorcycles, Detail Motor und Lithium-Ionen-Batterie.jpg
File:E-max electric scooter.JPG

Electric motorcycles and scooters are vehicles with two or three wheels that use electric motors to attain locomotion.

HistoryEdit

File:EVScooterAtVancouver.jpg
  • Late 1860s: Earliest references to electric motorcycles can be found in patents.
  • 1911: Electric motorcycle available according to early Popular Mechanics article.[1]
  • 2007: Li-Ion cell-powered Killacycle makes new quarter mile (400-metre) record of 7.824 seconds and 168 mph (270 km/h) in Phoenix, AZ, US at AHDRA 2007.[2]

Power sourceEdit

File:Yamaha fc aqel 2007.JPG

Generally, the source of power for the electric motor has been batteries, but development in fuel cell technology has created several prototypes. Some examples are: the ENV from Intelligent Energy, Honda's scooter using the Honda FC Stack, and the Yamaha FC-AQEL. Also, petroleum hybrid-electric motorcycles are under development. Some examples are the Ecycle, and Yamaha's Gen-RYU.

Advantages and disadvantagesEdit

Electric motorcycles and scooters are rising in popularity because of higher gasoline prices. Battery technology is gradually improving making this form of transportation more practical.[3]

File:City cut out.jpg

Advantages of electric over gasoline power:

  1. The fuel costs for electric power are approximately 25% the cost of gasoline power (US, mid-2008; see Electric car, "Running costs" for the calculation)[4]
  2. Nearly silent
  3. The Libert-E Xero has removable lithium ion batteries that can be charged using any 120v outlet
  4. Environmental friendly (no exhausted gases at point of use)
  5. Carbon tax and vehicle registration tax exemption in some countries
  6. No parking/congestion charges in some countries
  7. No road tax in some countries
  8. Using grid power to charge batteries causes less pollution than gasoline scooters;[citation needed] the amount of emissions and residues caused depends on the sources of the electricity used.
  9. No trips needed to a gas station—can be recharged at home or in charging stations. But charging or battery swapping in service stations, when needed, are faster.
  10. It can be used in a V2G system.
  11. Lower maintenance costs and fewer maintenance activities.
  12. Can be ridden indoors.
  13. More affordable than electric cars.
File:Parking Electric Scooters Chengdu.jpg

Disadvantages:

  1. Up front costs are higher than for a comparable gasoline powered motorcycle or scooter.[citation needed]
  2. Shorter range before recharging.
  3. Longer "fill up" or recharge time.
  4. Lower maximum speed at similar price points.
  5. Electric power outlets are often not conveniently located near streets or driveways. It is often difficult or impossible to bring the battery into an apartment, for example, for recharging.
  6. Battery capacity can be as low as 20% on a cold winter day with -20 °C (lead battery)
  7. As it is already difficult for motorcycles to be "noticed" by drivers of cars and trucks, the loss of characteristic engine noise might make riding these even more dangerous than their internal combustion engine powered counterparts.

TypesEdit

File:Fun-ev.com scooter 024.jpg

A scooter is a type of motorcycle with a step-through frame and usually with smaller wheels designed for urban transportation.

Various types of scootersEdit

Scooters are divided into categories as per the particular niche that they are designed to operate in and speed requirements:

  • Two-wheeled Vespa-styled scooters 0-60 mph (0–100 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled Stand-up scooters (like a kick scooter) 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled, side-by-side stand-up scooters like manufactured by Segway PT 0-12 mph (0–20 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled Seated scooters 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)
  • Three-wheeled standup scooters like manufactured by Zap 0-15 mph (0–25 km/h)
  • Three- and four-wheeled Mobility scooter (disability riders) 0-10 mph (0–15 km/h)
  • Three- and four-wheeled Seated scooters/golf carts 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)

Electric motorcycle or electric bicycleEdit

File:Electrocat - electric motorcycle.JPG

Two-wheeled motorcycles are generally differentiated from electric bicycles and mopeds (motorized pedal cycles) by speed, with motorcycles having greater speeds—usually greater than 30 mph (about 50 km/h). Although, this line for what constitutes a 2 wheeled motorcycle has blurred due to marketing, styling, and public opinion.

Certain models of electric bicycle take the form of scooters or small motorcycles, comprising of the standard features of common e-bikes, but with plastic or metal cladding, lighting systems; such as indicators and brake lights, and speedometers. They are however, classed as electric bicycles in most areas.

3-wheeled motorcyclesEdit

Due to vagueness in motor vehicle laws, any three-wheeled vehicle that can travel over 31 mph (50 km/h) may be classified as a motorcycle. This classification does not depend on whether the operator is fully enclosed by a "cage" or exposed to the elements. Several automotive startup companies made their initial designs three wheeled vehicles, because the motorcycle classification does not require the same costly battery of crash safety testing as a four wheeled vehicle.

For design purposes, three wheeled vehicles are divided into 2 categories:

  • 1 wheel in front and 2 in back, known as a delta design or the traditional trike (tricycle) design
  • 2 wheels in front and 1 in back, known as a tadpole design.

Some three wheeled motorcycles enclose the rider in a "cabin" or cockpit. These include the Twike, Myers Motors NmG.

Some three wheeled motorcycles have independent suspension allowing the vehicle to tilt or lean, such as the Carver one.

Self-balancing unicycleEdit

The Uno dicycle is another type of electric vehicle that is sometimes described as an electric motorcycle.[5][6]

Comparison of select production vehiclesEdit

Template:Split sections Template:Disputed

Name Top Speed Power Cost Vehicle type Battery type Battery life Battery capacity Range Comments
Libert-E Xero R30+ mph 1200w$3,000 ScooterLiPo Lithium Polymerapp.5 years, 1,200 cycles or 2 year warranty on battery20Ah  65–80 milesLibert-E Motor Models w/ removable batteries and 3-speed transmission
Quantya Strada55+ mph depending on final drive ratioTemplate:Convert @ 4000 rpm$10,700 Dual SportLiPo Lithium Polymerapp.5 years, 1,000 cycles or 2 year warranty on battery2.3 kWh 25–30 milesQuantya Motorcycles
Brammo Enertia60+ mph (96+ km/h)Template:Convert @ 4500 rpm$7,995 Motorcycle6 Lithium iron phosphate by Valence20,000 miles (32,000 km)3.1 kWh 50+ miles (80+ kilometres)

Currently available at select Best Buy stores and online.[7]

Xtreme Green Products65 mph (104 km/h) 4.5 kW Hub Motor[8] $8,495 MotorcycleLithium Ion Power Management System7 years60 A·h / 6 kWh Over 100 miles (Over 160 km)Review
Vectrix VX-162 mph (100 km/h) 20 kW[9] $8,800 ScooterNickel metal hydride (NiMH)
provided by GP Batteries
10 years or 50,000 miles / 80,000 km30 A·h, 3.7 kW·h 68 miles @ 25 mph (110 km @ 40 km/h)Review
Tiger Ozone Electric1.14 HP/485 rpmN/A$1,000 MotorcycleLead acidN/A35 Ah. N/AMore detail Designed and manufactured in Thailand.
Eped Sport/City40 mph+60 v 1,200 w£1,495 Scooter5 Crystal Technology Cells400+ charge cycles20 A·h35 miles (55 km)

Epeds Wiki

E-Solex21 mph400WE-solex Scooter 20 miles (without extra pedalling) E-solex
Yo Speed(45 km/h)750W Rs.35000(~$815) Scooter 80 km @ 70 kg [10]
ZAP Xebra40 mph (65 km/h) $10,000 3 WheelLead acid3 years 25 miles at 30 mph (40 km at 50 km/h)review[citation needed]
ZAP Zapino30 mph (48 km/h)3 kW$3,500ScooterLead acid (Lithium option) 38 A·h30 miles
EVT-4000e EVT-168 40 mph (60 km/h) 1,500 W $2,900 Scooter Lead acid, 4x12 or lithium ion 1.5 – 2 years [11], 1000+ charges for lithium 50 A·h 25 to 40 miles (40 to 60 km) North American Distributor, Taiwanese Manufacturer
Io-scooter 30 mph (50 km/h) 1500W €2,630 Scooter Lead acid, 4x12 1.5 – 2 years 50 A·h 25 to 35 miles (40 to 55 km) Io-scooter
Zero X+ Template:Convert17.4 kW 23 HPHigh Power $9295 Standard $7495Off-road MotorcyclePatent-pending lithium ion array?2 kWhTemplate:Convert 2hrsZero Motorcycles
Zero MX+ Template:Convert17.4 kW 23 HPHigh Power $9950 Standard $8295Off-road MotorcyclePatent-pending lithium ion array?2 kWhTemplate:Convert 2hrsZero Motorcycles
Zero S+ Template:Convert?$9995SupermotoPatent-pending lithium ion array?4 kWhTemplate:ConvertZero Motorcycles
Zero DS+ Template:Convert?$9995Dual-SportPatent-pending lithium ion array?4 kWhTemplate:ConvertZero Motorcycles
Native GPR-S70 mph (112 km/h)14.2 kW$8,500 Motorcycle24 Lithium cells2000+ charge cycles3.3 kWh60 miles (economy setting)Native Cycles
XM 5000Li60 mph (96 km/h)5.000W$6,499 Scooter21 Lithium cells2000+ charge cycles60 A·h85 miles (130 km)Review
ECPU scooter30 mph (50 km/h) 350~500W $450(~Rs.22000) Scooter Lead acid 6 x 12 V 20 Ah 2 years 1.44 KWh 100 miles at 19 mph,70 miles at 30 mph (160 km at 32 km/h, 110 km at 45 km/h) Review
Z Electric Vehicle ZEV570065 mph (104 km/h) 5700 W $5895 Scooter Lithium max 60AH 10 years 3.36 KWh 54 miles at 50 mph,72 miles at 28 mph Z Electric Vehicle

Comparison of select upcoming vehiclesEdit

Name Top Speed Power Cost Vehicle type Battery type Battery life Battery capacity Range Comments
Smart Cities Roboscooter [12]?+ mph (? km/h) $? Motorcycle? ? miles (? kilometres)kWh ?+ miles (?+ kilometres)

Available in ?.

VentureOne75+ mph (120+ km/h)40+ kW$23,000 3 WheelLithium-ion batteries by A123Systems5000+ charge cycles 120 miles (about 200 km)video Available in 2010.
Aptera 2e 85 mph (135 km/h) 30 kW $27,000 3 WheelLithium Phosphate, unknown manufacturer N/A 13 kWh 120 miles (190 km)Production expected in Q4 2009.
EVC Volta G/T Metro70 mph (112 km/h)8 kW$7,995ScooterLithium ionN/A8 kWh75 miles at optimized speedProduction in summer 2008.
EVC Roadking91 mph (146 km/h)15 kW$9,895ScooterLithium ionN/A8.2 kWh75 miles at optimized speedProduction in summer 2008.
Mission One150 mph (242 km/h)N/A$68,995MotorcycleLithium ionN/A150 miles Production in 2010.
EVC X21107 mph (171 km/h)21 kW$10,950ScooterLithium ionN/A8.2 kWh75 miles at optimized speedProduction in summer 2008.

List of electric motorcycles and scootersEdit

See Category:Electric scooters and Category:Electric motorcycles

Promotion Edit

File:VM 5577 Lanzhou.jpg

Premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Liu Chao-shiuan said that the government-financed Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) will help domestic manufacturers mass-produce 100,000 electric motorcycles in four years.[13]

See alsoEdit

References Edit

External linksEdit

Template:Alternative propulsionde:Elektroroller es:Moto eléctrica eo:Elektroskotero fr:Scooter électrique it:Scooter elettrico ja:電動スクーター ru:Электроскутер sv:Elmoped

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