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A utility bicycle is a bicycle designed for practical transportation, as opposed to bicycles which are primarily designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles, sport/training bicycles, and mountain bicycles. The vast majority of bicycles can be found in the developing world, [1] and are utility bikes. As such utility bikes are the most common form of bicycle globally.

HistoryEdit

File:Brosen city bicycle.jpg

Bicycles have been promoted for their utilitarian strengths since before they were technically known as bicycles. The draisine and the boneshaker, were hoped to become an inexpensive utilitarian alternative to horses by their makers.[2] However the inherent danger, cost, discomfort, and restrictive gender roles of the day, kept it popular mainly with wealthy adventurous young men, and mainly for recreation and sport. The development of penny-farthing moved away from the utilitarian goal of earlier forms, with it's less stable ride, and difficulty carrying much baggage. It furthered the trend of bicycles to be used by young men, willing to take risks, for sport and recreation. Despite this, we find the earliest mention of working bikes in 1874, in Paris, as couriers, for a newspaper and the stock market riding penny-farthings.[3]

It was the introduction of the safety bicycle that was successful for the first time to build a bicycle that worked well for utilitarian purposes, "a poor man's nag".[4] It was this development that was the cause of the bicycle boom of the 1890s. The main use of bicycles during the boom was still sport and recreation, but additionally they were adopted by many professions: police, postal workers, delivery men, municipal workers and for basic transportation of people of all classes, races and both genders.[5] In the USA, after the boom, use changed dramatically from sport and recreation to basic transportation. By 1902, as the boom was coming to an end, nearly all cyclists were cycling for practical purposes. [6] The price of bicycles dropped dramatically, due to increased competition between makers and more price conscious consumers; profits dried up and many of the cycling manufactures went out of business. The history is similar in the UK, but there some of the manufactures were better able to handle the transition to transportation based cycling, even to the point of talking of a second boom due to so many working class people taking up cycling. [7] Additionally the British makers were able to tap into the developing markets overseas, primarily India, China, and Japan.

Since the 1890s only incremental mechanical advances have taken place for the majority of the world's utility bicycles. In fact many in Asia still use rod brakes. In some countries, like the USA, that saw widespread use their utility bicycles have all but disappeared; in others, like the Netherlands, they have held ground, and its use has grown in much of the developing world.

Present day useEdit

They are used for short-distance commuting, running errands, shopping, leisure or for transporting goods or merchandise. Utility bikes may also be seen in postal service, in war, and for employee transportation inside large workplaces (factories, warehouses, airports, movie studio lots, etc.).

Utility bicycles often feature a step-through frame so they can be easily mounted, single speed, or with internal hub gearing (no external gearing system), and drum brakes to reduce the need for maintenance, mudguards to keep the rider's clothing clean, a chain guard to prevent skirts or loose trousers from being caught in the chain, a skirt guard to prevent a long skirt catching in the rear brakes, a center stand kickstand so it can be parked easily, and a basket or pannier rack to carry personal possessions or shopping bags.

Design Edit

A traditional type of utility bicycle, the English roadster may weigh as much as 35 to 50 pounds (16 – 23 kg). Parts such as frames, wheels/rims, and tires are chosen for strength, safety, and durability rather than high performance. Additionally, utility bikes tend to incorporate fewer technological advances in material design and engineering in comparison to sport bicycles, though there are exceptions. In particular, the small-tired Moulton portable utility cycles incorporate advanced engineering with relatively light weight.

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Most utility bikes feature an upright riding position. The handlebars are almost always curved back and positioned higher than the saddle so that the rider can operate controls without changing his or her riding posture. Some people add a child seat or a trailer. The utility bike's combination of parts, design, and features provide functionality and comfort at the expense of weight, an adequate compromise when used as originally intended (local commuting and short rides).[8]

Types of utility bicycles Edit

Designed for commuting, errands, delivery and general urban transport.

Comparison with other bicycles Edit

Utility bikes are somewhat similar in purpose, though not in design, to the lighter and sportier hybrid bicycle. Utility bicycles are typically more robust and heavier than sport oriented bicycles, however, this is offset by their convenience.

Use Edit

The utility bicycle, usually seen in the form of the English roadster, is the most widely used form of bicycle in many undeveloped parts of the world. While motor vehicles have displaced bicycles for personal transportation in many industrialized and post-industrial nations, rising fuel costs and concerns over the environment have led many people to once again turn to utility bicycles for a variety of daily tasks. In countries where purpose-built utility bikes are unavailable or unsuited to local conditions, many cyclists have acquired hybrid bicycles, road bicycles, mountain bikes, or touring bicycles for commuting and general utility use, often refurbishing older or secondhand models. A few countries, notably the China, India, Netherlands, Denmark and the Flemish Region of Belgium, continue to produce versions of the utility bike. In addition, the Deutsche Post uses a version of a utility bike in most German cities for delivering mail.

See also Edit

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References Edit

  1. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 2. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. "Millions of people around the world still rely on their trusty clunkers for cheap and efficient transportation. In fact, the global fleet aproaches a billion, with the vast majority circulating in developing countries like Cuba and China where automobiles remain a luxury." 
  2. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 169-170. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  3. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 177. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  4. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 309. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  5. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 264. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  6. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 294. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  7. Herlihy, David V (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. pp. 315. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/book.asp?isbn=9780300104189. 
  8. Richard Ballentine, Richard's 21st Century Bicycle Book – The Overlook Press, New York, www.overlookoress.com / (2001). pp. 27-29. ISBN 978-1585671120

Template:Cb start Template:Cycling Template:Utility cycling Template:Cb endis:Borgarhjól ja:実用車 (自転車) pl:Rower miejski

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